summer plants of the upper meadows include Greater
Knapweed, Hardheads (=Lesser Knapweed),
Scabious, Meadow Cranesbill, Alexanders,
Meadow Vetchling, Yarrow,
St. John's Wort*, Great Mullein* and many
others. Herb Robert is
found amongst the scrub.
(*notably on disturbed ground.)
Plants of Ancient Downland
indicators on the lower slopes include Dropwort,
Ladies Tresses (upper plateau), Hairy
of which are rarely found on pastures, restored wildlife meadows or agricultural
downland. Other downland plants that are more likely on the biodiverse
down herbland are Wild Thyme,
Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Squinancywort,
Flax, Small Scabious,
Basil. There are other more widespread
wild plants like the Mouse-eared Hawkweed,
Rough Hawkbit, Lesser Hawkbit, Bird's Foot Trefoil, Ground
Speedwell, Field Speedwell, Sweet Violet,
and Yellow Wort.
Wild Flora and Fauna on Chalk flickr
Adur Wild Flowers 2009
A large part (724 acres) of the downs including Mill Hill were presented to the people of Shoreham in 1937.Local Nature Reserve. This is divided into about 11 acres of grassland and meadows above the ridge, about 9 acres of scrub, the copse and glades at the northern end, and about half of the prime Chalkhill Blue area of 6.4 acres of herbland remaining. 6 acres has been lost to a Sycamore woodland on the southern slopes.
This is low fertility chalkland not suitable for grazing. The top area is effectively a wild meadow and the lower slopes a rabbit warren dominated by prostrate (not the upright form) Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa.
Hill is nationally important because of its population of Chalkhill
Blue Butterflies. Estimates of the numbers
are notoriously inaccurate. In the 1950s
the population was estimated by R. M. Craske
be 50,000. This may be an exceptionally good year. I would estimate the
numbers at that time to be nearer 25,000 for Mill Hill only. After the
cattle grazing and thorn incursions the numbers plummeted to the most reliable
estimate in 1960
of 6,000. The new road and Sycamore woodland further denuded the Horseshoe
Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa,
and bare chalk downland to a figure I have estimated at a top figure of
3,000 Chalkhill Blue Butterflies at the turn of the millennium (counted
in 2003). Almost
all these butterflies are now to be found on the six acres of the lower
family lived at The Mill House, Mill Hill, from around 1933
until about 1967, and every July we saw the
"Butterfly Men" walking past onto the Downs. My father used to tell
us that they were interested in the blue butterflies."
Heather Clark (née Eager), Ryde, Isle of Wight
Postcode: BN43 5FH
Grid Ref: TQ 21170 07444 (upper car park)
Geographic Link OS Map
Google Earth Map
Magic Map of Mill Hill NR
Local Nature Reserve Designation
Natural England: Local Nature Reserves
Multi-Map (Bird's Eye View)
Grid Reference Finder
The butterfly lower slopes at Mill Hill are under serious threat by a natural process known as ecological succession where the woody shrubs like Privet, Brambles and Hawthorn invade the herb-rich slopes gradually turning the downs into woodland and eliminating the butterfly larval food plants especially the Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa, on which the Chalkhill Blue Butterflies rely. The remedy is by expert professional removal of the Privet on a regular basis. This job is now being undertaken by volunteers.
at Mill Hill
Bees were seen on the Ivy
Under a clear blue sky a handful of House Martins flew to and fro over the top of Mill Hill prior to emigration south. And there were two Spotted Flycatchers seen amongst the scrub a near the copse at the top of the hill. They would be also on passage prior to spending the winter in Africa. They were attractive to watch and remained hidden amongst the Hawthorn mixed scrub immediately west of the top copse.
Flycatcher is a fairly
common but declining summer visitor; scarce passage migrant in spring and
fairly common in Sussex in autumn (Sussex
Ornithological Society). They usually prey on large insects like butterflies
and crane-flies, but they seemed to be after
much smaller prey.
More Information and Links
Meadow Brown on Wild Basil
There was a show of about fifty butterflies of eleven species with some, especially the Small Copper and the one tatty and one worn Adonis Blue likely to be the same butterflies seen on the lower slopes four days ago. There were a handful of male Common Blues, two brighter Brown Argus, frequent Meadow Browns, occasional Small Heaths and Small Whites with one fleeting glimpse of a Wall Brown on the lower slopes. A bright Clouded Yellow was seen in the distance. A probable brown female Adonis Blue crawled amongst the undergrowth. A Common Darter (dragonfly) was seen amongst the butterflies and scores of Ivy Bees, Colletes hederae. A Red Admiral or two were seen on the middle part of Mill Hill and a Speckled Wood in the top copse. On the parched hill there were few nectar plants: Devil's Bit Scabious was a clear favourite but on the middle part Wild Basil and Hoary Ragwort were seen used.
16 September 2019
Blue, Large White
Meadow Brown, Small White
Butterflies were frequently disturbed on the lower slopes of Mill Hill under a cloudy sky. Most of them were a the northern end where the Devil's Bit Scabious was in flower. Variety was favoured over sheer numbers where Large Whites (10+) led the way in frequency and activity. A closer look identified some Small Whites but I am not sure how many. Most of the other butterflies were resting until I disturbed them. A Red Admiral rose from the ground in front of me in the middle section of the lower slopes. Small Heaths and Meadow Browns put in an occasional appearance, despite the lack of any sun shining through the clouds. A faded Brown Argus sparred with a worn male Common Blue. Simultaneously, I caught a glimpse of the small or brightly coloured Small Copper Butterfly and the first of two male Chalkhill Blues in remarkably good condition. I did not see any brown females but a worn male Adonis Blue or two quarrelled with the other blues. A spectacularly bright Clouded Yellow was unmistakable out of camera range. There were about forty butterflies of eleven species on the lower slopes of Mill Hill.
Copper, Small Heath, Brown
There was over a dozen nests and scores of Ivy Bees, Colletes hederae, where the soil was exposed on the west facing lower slopes of Mill Hill in the afternoon. Ivy was seen in flower as I returned by the uneventful ridge route in humid conditions.
10 September 2019
White, Hemp Agrimony,
Field Scabious, Greater Knapweed
top part of Mill Hill failed to produce anything noteworthy, although I
did see the following butterflies:
Wood (1), Green-veined
White (1), Small
Whites (FQ), Large
A Wasp Spider, Argiope bruennichi, had spun a web on Mill Hill.
3 September 2019
Adder Slow Worm
I visited the area around the Reservoir on Mill Hill to try and get a better picture of the Adder but there were dark low clouds and it was breezy as well, proving conditions difficult to focus for photography and inimical for butterflies. There was half a dozen large Slow Worms and a smaller juvenile Adder south of the Reservoir, occasional butterflies on the ridge and plateau including Small Whites, Meadow Browns, Small Heaths, one male Adonis Blue and one Red Admiral.
Saxifrage, Autumn Gentian, Autumn
Lady's Tresses, Round-headed Rampion
Small Scabious, Autumn Lady's Tresses
On the close short vegetation on the plateau of Mill Hill noted the first Autumn Gentian and Autumn Lady's Tresses of the year with frequent Round-headed Rampion and Dwarf Thistle, and notable flowers of Burnet Saxifrage and Small Scabious.
1 September 2019
Blue, Buddleia with
a visiting Clouded
Adonis Blue on Devil's Bit Scabious, Chalkhill Blue or Adonis Blue
the late afternoon the sun came out and I
made a hurried visit to the lower slopes of Mill Hill, where I spotted
my first two restless Clouded Yellow Butterflies
the year, with frequent Meadow
frequent Small Heaths,
frequent Adonis Blues,
occasional Chalkhill Blues,
occasional Common Blues,
a few Small
Whites, one faded Painted
Lady and occasional moths
including brief glimpses of Treble-bar
There were half a dozen female blue butterflies in a chocolate brown livery crawling amongst the leaves of Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa. I managed a good look at five of them but I was unable to discern whether they were Chalkhill Blue or Adonis Blue from their appearance. One was amorous, flirting with a male Adonis Blue so this is favourite. However, the blue scales were absent on the hindwings which indicates Chalkhill Blue. Devil's Bit Scabious was now flowering at the northern end of the lower slopes and was attractive to half a dozen Meadow Brown Butterflies. A Common Lizard skitted over the undergrowth and an ambush predator, the Kite-tailed Robberfly, Tolmerus atricapillus, waited on a Bramble leaf on the lower slopes of Mill Hill.
the heat and dry summer, the autumn flowers
looked dried out and finished on the southern top part (south of the Reservoir)
of Mill Hill with hundreds of the pale discs of Greater
interspersed with fresh Hoary Ragwort.
There was half a dozen large (to 20 cm) fat Slow
Worms in their usual place. They were
all intertwined and I nearly missed a well camouflaged smaller slim juvenile
my first snake
this year. It was all coiled up, but slithered off before I could get a
decent photograph in the badly fading light.
On a Buddleia near the lower car park on Mill Hill Nature Reserve there were another half a dozen or many more Painted Ladies.
A Kestrel hung in the breeze over Mill Hill upper and middle north there were eleven species of butterfly including 25+ immigrant Painted Ladies. The Buddleia was swaying in the breeze too much for an afternoon photograph on the western edge of the upper car park. A Common Lizard skitted over the low-lying vegetation into the shelter of the scrub near (west of) the upper car park.
Butterfly Day List
9 August 2019
Aberrant on the left
species of butterfly were seen including an
aberrant male Adonis Blue.
Butterfly Day List
5 August 2019
immigrants, the attractive Painted Ladies,
finally arrived on Mill Hill in numbers: about ten restless butterflies
on the middle slopes where the abundant flowering
Marjoram and Hemp
Agrimony did not attract as many butterflies
as in previous years. There were thirteen
species including mating Chalkhill
worn and damaged male Adonis Blues,
new Wall Browns
and very frequent Meadow
Brown Butterflies. A
Hornet Robber Fly,
crabroniformis, landed on the middle
slopes of Mill Hill. Carline Thistles
were now flowering and attracting Chalkhill
Butterfly Day List
On a cloudy afternoon, again I parked my ebike by the Reservoir and chose the short route down by the ridge path to the lower slopes of Mill Hill. In the early afternoon and it was warm (20° C) and very humid (75%) but overcast so the butterflies were not overly active. A dozen butterflies were attracted to the Marjoram on the northern part of the lower slopes but the others I nearly had to tread on, or were disturbed by their insect quarrels.
Lower slopes transect (one acre): Chalkhill Blues 94 (93 males, one female the 94th seen), Gatekeepers estimated 75+, frequent Meadow Brown Butterflies, 10+ Adonis Blues (mostly fresh, first of the second brood), a handful of Common Blues, a few Large Whites, one Brimstone, two Wall Browns, a few Small Heaths, one Speckled Wood (southern steps), occasional Six-spotted Burnet Moths, one Treble-bar Moth and a few pyralid micro-moths Pyrausta purpuralis. 75% of the butterflies were seen at the northern end of the lower slopes. Green grasshoppers were common, disturbed at every other step.
Above the ridge: Chalkhill Blues 13, Gatekeepers estimated 15+, occasional Meadow Browns, and a few Large Whites.
Basil, Robin's Pin Cushion, Yellow
Wort, Teasel, Ploughman's
Welted Thistle, Dwarf Thistle, Wild Carrot, Small Scabious
Hawthorn & Brambles
Gatekeepers were the most prevalent of ten species of butterflies near the upper car park.
Brimstone Butterflies were attracted to Wild Basil.
On a cloudy afternoon, I parked my ebike by the Reservoir and chose a short route down by the ridge path to the lower slopes where the grasses and flowers were blown about in the breeze. Wild Basil was attractive to the butterflies with frequent Gatekeepers, 15 good condition male Chalkhill Blues, three pristine Brimstone Butterflies, occasional Large Whites and occasional Six-spotted Burnet Moths. I noted a preponderance of thistles above the ridge: frequent Welted Thistle, occasional Musk Thistles, and frequent Creeping Thistles. Wild Parsnip was profuse and widespread.
Thistle, Ploughman's Spikenard, Gatekeeper,
Musk Thistle, Chalkhill Blue
By the time I reached the lower slopes the breeze had picked up and the weather was decidedly dull and the butterflies were all resting. I managed to disturb 38 male Chalkhill Blues in a third of an acre. All were fresh bar one very worn and tatty specimen. They were also accompanied by five Peacock Butterflies, at least one Small Heath Butterfly, and occasional Meadow Brown Butterflies and Gatekeepers. A fresh male Common Blue Butterfly was noticeable because of its differing quality of blue and smaller size. Dwarf Thistles were frequent over the lower slopes but the occasional Carline Thistles were still at the budding stage. The first Ploughman's Spikenard appeared in flower. I left early, after an hour, by the winding path with a summer cold and as there were spots of rain in the air.
It is remarkable that in the middle of July a different set of flowers become dominant on the levels and Mill Hill. On the lower slopes of Mill Hill, the Dwarf Thistle was a first arrival for 2019, Round-headed Rampion seen for the first time this summer, and the Musk Thistle was only noted for the first time this year. Green shoots of Carline Thistle appeared.
Large Skipper, Brown Argus, Gatekeeper
WIth the new flowers came the butterflies: frequent Meadow Brown Butterflies, frequent Marbled Whites, frequent Gatekeepers, occasional Small Skippers, Large Whites, Red Admirals, Peacocks, on the top and middle slopes of Mill Hill. There were plentiful nectar plants but only the Large Whites had an inkling to visit the Marjoram and Peacocks found on the Buddleia. Six-spotted Burnet Moths were frequently found on purple flowers. Amongst the scrub there were two Speckled Woods, one definite Ringlet, and a Large Skipper in the clearing where the first Chalkhill Blue flew over. Over the northern part of the lower slopes a second male Chalkhill Blue quickly appeared followed by a few Small Heath Butterflies, and a Brimstone Butterfly. in the late afternoon, more Chalkhill Blues first emerged and after a few seconds flew off rapidly, one chased by a Brown Argus. About ten Chalkhill Blues were all seen at one time. On the return over the middle slopes a further tatty Brown Argus was seen, but under a blue sky the number of butterflies was spasmodic. On the prevalent Marjoram, there were not as many butterflies as seen in previous years. The ambush predator, the Kite-tailed Robberfly, Tolmerus atricapillus, waited on a Bramble leaf.
Marjoram on the Middle Slopes
Wild Flower Report
9 July 2019
Chalkhill Blue Butterfly
male Chalkhill Blue Butterfly
of the summer flew around the lower slopes of Mill Hill, in the afternoon
when the cloud allowed the sun to shine. All the couple of hundred butterflies
seen on Mill Hill Nature Reserve were restless,
with over a hundred Meadow Brown Butterflies
disturbed, over fifty hidden or restless Marbled
Whites, frequent Gatekeepers,
Heath Butterflies, and Red
Admirals, a few each of
Brimstone Butterflies, Peacocks,
Small Skippers (top
meadow only and hiding), Small
Whites and one tatty and faded Painted
Lady, and a Yellow
Shell Moth. The hoverfly
festivum was spotted on Dogwood
on the middle slopes where it was been seen before.
The miniature white flower that was quite extensive on the lower slopes beneath the path was Squinancywort. I have not recorded it in such abundance before.
Butterflies were common on the upper part of Mill Hill with scores of restless Marbled Whites and scores of hidden Meadow Brown Butterflies disturbed on a sunny afternoon (with a few clouds), occasional Small Heath Butterflies, my first three Small Skippers of 2019 and a faded Painted Lady in the Bramble-covered meadow north of the top car park, occasional Large Whites, at least one Small White, occasional Gatekeepers, a faded and worn Small Tortoiseshell, and a few Cinnabar Moths and caterpillars. Most of butterflies inhabited the areas of mixed long grasses, Bedstraws and Greater Knapweed.
Illustrated Butterfly Report
White, Greater Knapweed with
Broomrape, Greater Knapweed
Meadow Scabious, Marjoram
Mill Hill Upper
New flowers seen in quantity for the first time this year were the Common Hogweed, a few flowers of Meadow Scabious, the beginnings of Wild Parsnip, a few (much less than normal) Wild Carrot, and on the middle slopes the first of the large patches of Marjoram. There were a few Yellow Wort, frequent Pyramidal Orchids, occasional Lesser Hawkbits, budding Common Ragwort, the tall Agrimony, Melilot, Meadow Cranesbill and Mugwort amongst flowers previously mentioned this year. A large expanse of the colourful bush Tutsan was seen for the first time west of the copse. My first of the year Hawkweed Ox-tongue towered above the rest of the vegetation in the lay-by on the east side of the country road.
2 July 2019
Basil, Great Willowherb, Marjoram
Self-heal, Perforate St. John's Wort
Summer turned towards autumn with the hay meadow on the levels below Mill Hill harvested and the hay baled. I recorded my first two Gatekeepers (butterfly) of the summer amongst the scrub on Mill Hill, with frequent restless Marble Whites, frequent Meadow Brown Butterflies disturbed on a sunny afternoon (with a few clouds), frequent Small Heath Butterflies, one Brimstone Butterfly and a Red Admiral, a few Large Whites, one faded Painted Lady and a few Cinnabar Moths. New flowers seen for the first time this summer were Common Centaury, Wild Basil, Marjoram, the wayside Vervain, the tall Great Willowherb and the first of the Traveller's Joy. I visited the lower slopes but curtailed my impromptu visit to the middle slopes after my camera battery ran out (wrong spare by mistake, and TG-4 spare camera had malfunctioned). On the way back a blue butterfly was spotted by its underwing on the tarmac road, most likely a Common Blue? (but it could have been a Brown Argus or an early Chalkhill Blue?)
Thunderstorms were forecast (but elsewhere) and rain was in the air on a cloudy day. I ventured out to the top of Mill Hill only because of over exposure of my pictures two days earlier and I wanted to correct them.
Meadow Brown on Greater
Knapweed, Narrow-bordered Five-spot Burnet
Yellow Rattle, Large Skipper
Upper Mill Hill
It was too cool for active butterflies and they had to be disturbed from their shelter in the afternoon. Meadow Brown Butterflies were frequently dislodged, as were occasional Small Heath Butterflies, one Brimstone Butterfly and a Red Admiral. A few Cinnabar Moths fluttered on to the underside of leaves and a Silver Y Moth was seen amongst the leaves of Greater Knapweed. The fawn/yellow underside of a moth was probably a Burnet Companion Moth amongst the long grasses and Greater Knapweed south of the Reservoir. I spotted the whirring of a Burnet Moth before one landed on a Greater Knapweed flower. Most of the Greater Knapweed was yet to flower and the open heads were frequent, but sparsely distributed. The moth had five red spots on each wing and this was a Narrow-bordered Five-spot Burnet Moth. I seriously underestimated the Knapweed Broomrape on my last visit with 200+ spikes amongst the Greater Knapweed south of the Reservoir.
meadow north of the upper car park hosted my first skipper
of the year: a Large Skipper
which was a find I was pleased about as they have tended to be infrequent
in recent years. There was another one on the middle slopes immediately
to the west of the upper copse.
This fly was too well camouflaged to be recognised in the field on a Greater Knapweed on Mill Hill. It is likely to be a Conopid fly, probably Sicus ferrugineus. This is a widespread species that is not often recorded. The Greater Knapweed attracted scores of bumblebees and the larvae of this fly are endoparasites of bumblebees, overwintering in their victims
Swathes of Bird's Foot Trefoil grew in the New Erringham pastures to the east of Mill Hill. Small Scabious was seen in flower for the first time this year by the road.
"Mare's Tails" (cloud types) hung in the blue sky to the south with Cumulus and vapour trails looking north over Mill Hill. I cycled up to the upper car park where the northern meadow was now a large bramble patch. On the top part of the hill, Meadow Brown Butterflies were frequently disturbed, as were Small Heath Butterflies, occasional 6+ Cinnabar Moths, occasional 5+ Brimstone Butterflies, a Red Admiral and a Yellow Shell Moth. A flock of Jacob sheep were penned in on the southern part of Mill Hill Nature Reserve in an area of rough grasses and Stinging Nettles.
Wasp, Knapweed Broomrape, Brimstone
7-spot Ladybird, Greater Knapweed
Upper Mill Hill
Frequent Knapweed Broomrape was seen in greater numbers (40+) than ever been recorded before. All were seen south of the Reservoir amongst the Greater Knapweed with only occasional flowers The other well known parasitic plant Yellow Rattle was abundant in roughly the same area. Other flowers seen for the first time this year included the diminutive Wild Thyme and Eyebright, the small Self-heal, upright Perforate St. John's Wort and Yellow Wort, budding Pyramidal Orchid and patches of Meadow Cranesbill swaying in the breeze. The creamy white flowers of Privet now exceeded the white of Elderflower. I spotted Bulbous Buttercups and a Dog Violet still in flower, and small blue Milkworts.
30 May 2019
Belle Moth, Aspitates
Tatty Adonis Blue with Horseshoe Vetch seed pods
a Fresh Breeze
afternoon, about forty Adonis
around the lower slopes of Mill Hill, with a few male Common
Blues, with occasional Brimstone
Butterflies on patrol, frequent 20+ Small
Heaths, a Cinnabar
Moth, and a Yellow
Belle Moth, Aspitates
ochrearia. Some of the
Blues were as tatty as the fading Horseshoe
were searched out. There was a Speckled
Wood amongst the scrub. On the top of
the hill, the first Greater Knapweed
was in flower.
Adur Moths 2019
rarely allowed to grow into a small tree. Interesting
fact: in the sun the twigs are coloured crimson, while those in the shade
are lime green.
Woodland Trust Information
21 May 2019
White fluffy Cumulus clouds allowed intermittent sunshine brought frequent butterflies out on the lower slopes of Mill Hill. About three quarters were lively Adonis Blues (38+7=45 in the transect acre, more over the slopes) over the swathes of Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa, frequent Small Heaths (20+), patrolling Brimstone Butterflies (10+), a few Large Whites, a fresh Grizzled Skipper, a fresh Dingy Skipper, a Wall Brown (on the southern steps), a very fast flying Peacock Butterfly, at least two each of Burnet Companion Moths, Cinnabar Moths and Treble-bar Moths. Two pairs of Adonis Blues were mating. Grasshoppers were stridulating at the northern end of the lower slopes and small movements were thought to be nymphs. Wild Mignonette was in flower. The first Dropwort appeared on its tall stalk above the short green vegetation.
Mignonette, Dropwort, Hounds-tongue
Horseshoe Vetch & Milkwort, Bladder Campion
I noted the meadow north of the upper car park was now covered in Brambles and the vegetation already up to chest height. I did not venture in as it was getting late in the afternoon. The middle slopes immediately south of the Copse had patches of Horseshoe Vetch and the first Bladder Campion was just about flowering. Crosswort was recorded for the first time (it is easily overlooked) on Mill Hill. Hawthorn was beginning to lose its blossom as Elderflower was beginning.
Rain curtailed my early afternoon visit, on a day not bright enough to make the butterflies active, although I disturbed five male Adonis Blues, one Brimstone Butterfly, and a Cinnabar Moth in a leisurely fifteen minute of less than half the one acre transect on the lower slopes.
Hairy Violet, Bulbous Buttercup
I noted the following wild flowers for the first time this year: Rough Hawkbit, Mouse-eared Hawkweed, Hairy Violet, Dog Rose and the first flowering on Mill Hill of the large shrubby Hounds-tongue. The smaller than usual amount of flowering Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa, was disappointing, with none around the Tor Grass, which appears to have spread.
13 May 2019
Blue, Treble-bar Moth, Adonis
Brown Argus, Speckled Wood, Adonis Blue
Adonis Blue, Adonis Blue. Dingy Skipper
a sunny afternoon on the lower slopes of Mill Hill produced scores of restless
fluttering around the early swathes of Horseshoe
Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa,
There were well over a hundred per acre of nine
species and all of them were very active and
I had to wait for over an hour for any to settle nearby. Dingy
Skippers were the most frequent with over
forty seen, but Grizzled Skippers
were old and much harder to find only a handful including an amorous or
sparring pair. The only one that settled for a second was slightly frayed
at the edges. Twenty or so male
Blues were very lively until they came
across a few females.
Heaths (12+) were frequently seen often
chasing each other and sparring with other species including occasional
Butterflies patrolled incessantly without
pausing, occasionally bumping into the whiter females and both a Large
White and a Green-veined
White. A flash of grey was a disturbed
Moth, and a pretty Mother
Shipton Moth was recognised when it settled.
A Speckled Wood patrolled
the southern steps and a fresh Brown Argus
seen clearly by the winding path, near some Wayfaring
Nine butterfly species and two macro moths
Hawthorn was flowering all over Mill Hill on some small trees at its peak blossom. On the top, south of the reservoir, the thick stems of Knapweed Broomrape appeared. This is a large parasitic plant. Nearby, the Cowslip patch was nearing the end of its flowering period. I also noted some Bird's Foot Trefoil with its small yellow flowers. On the lower slopes there were Dog Violets and clumps of Milkwort amongst the Horseshoe Vetch.
2 May 2019
Dingy Skipper with Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa
of brilliant blue over the lower slopes of Mill Hill heralded the beginning
of summer on the downs with the first male
Blue Butterfly of the year. It was unmistakable
even though seen in the middle distance for 15 seconds at most; too far
away to follow it for a photograph. Under
a dark cloudy sky with the first spots of rain,
it was too cool for many butterflies.
It was only after nearly an hour did I manage to disturb the first of half
a dozen Dingy Skippers,
followed soon after by a Small Heath,
a Green-veined White
and a probable Peacock Butterfly.
If I had not delayed my return I would missed the Adonis
Blue and a probable Wall
Brown. A Cinnabar
Moth was seen clearly but it quickly disappeared
into shelter. Crane-flies
were mating. And the green beetle on Bulbous
Buttercup seems to be Cryptocephalus
aureolus. The small green grasshopper
nymphs frequently seen on the lower slopes of Mill Hill were probably the
Green Grasshopper, Omocestus viridulus. A small Holly Tree
appeared amongst the undergrowth on the disturbed ground.
24 April 2019
Vetch, Cowslips, Milkwort,
Dog Violets, Hawthorn, Dandelion
did not show on
the lower slopes of Mill Hill, with a chill
(air temperature 12° C) on the breeze (Force
6 gusting to Gale Force 7) and intermittent April showers. A
Wood made a flight near the southern steps,
at the last knockings, as I headed for home
in light rain. Wayfaring Tree was
beginning to flower.
Ant, Myrmica sabuleti ?
With the first Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa, appearing in bud on the lower slopes of Mill Hill, more butterflies were seen than expected on as hazy afternoon (air temperature 16° C).
of ten butterfly species was more apparent
than sheer numbers with Speckled Wood
(one on the southern steps), Brimstone
3+, Small White
1+, the first of the year Small Tortoiseshell
(southern, top), the first of the year pair of Dingy
Skippers, 2+ Grizzled
Skippers, 1+ male Orange
Tips, another first of the year fresh
Copper, at least one Peacock
Butterfly, occasional Small
Heaths 4+, and two Treble-bar
Moths. Micro moths
were frequently seen and ones recognised were the pyralids
Pyrausta purpuralis and
despicata as well as an even smaller
A small bee
was occasionally seen, small and rather distinctive in yellow and black
barring: I think this was a Nomada
species, most likely Nomada goodeniana.
Very small bright green grasshopper nymphs
were seen amongst the dense green undergrowth.
Adur Butterfly List 2019
There was one large (25 cm with a truncated tail) Slow Worm, south of the Reservoir.
Plenty of butterflies out in the warm sun on Mill Hill this afternoon: at least five male Orange Tips, loads of Brimstone and Peacock, couple of Small Tortoiseshell and a single Green Veined White. Possible Grizzled Skipper but only a fleeting glimpse. Bird wise, Whitethroats and Blackcaps were there, along with the Chiff Chaffs. A few Swallows were passing through.
17 April 2019
I disturbed a single Skylark from the plateau of Mill Hill on a hazy afternoon. It took flight after I thought I heard it singing earlier, but there were House Sparrows (? ID) singing melodiously for a mate from the scrub, and it was too hazy to see a lark in the blue sky. Cowslips were flowering by some rabbit burrows (disused) on the middle open part of Mill Hill west of the top copse.
Spikenard (dead), Speckled Wood
Grizzled Skipper, Milkwort with Pill Bug
the middle of the lower slopes I spotted just a single Grizzled
Skipper, followed by the small pyralid
Pyrausta nigrata, and later a Small
White Butterfly and a strong flying Peacock
Butterfly, and on my return journey a
Wood fluttered around the southern steps.
Violets were now abundant but there still
seemed to be less scattered over the slopes than in previous years. Milkwort
were poking out of the short vegetation.
I noted the top leaves were much longer than the leaves at the rosette
base. This is typical of the local Milkworts
which I have identified as Common Milkwort
vulgaris in previous years, but this
has not been confirmed. Occasional spiders
were spotted crawling rapidly over the undergrowth, mostly very small Wolf
Spiders, Pardosa, but also a full
sized Nursery Spider
and a tiny pale Crab Spider.
On a afternoon when the sun came out unexpectedly, I quickly spotted my first two Grizzled Skippers of the year on the lower slopes of Mill Hill, now decorated with Dog Violets, but much more sparsely than normal. A Common Bee-fly hovered above the violets and a Carder Bee flitted between the flowers quicker than my camera could focus. My first Brimstone Butterfly of the year fluttered past. The first of three Peacock Butterflies landed intermittently. No more skippers were seen.
Adur Butterfly List 2019
the Adonis Blue
Butterfly* with attendant Red
(*these could be a Chalkhill Blue caterpillars)
Most of the observed action occurred amongst the dense interlocking leaves on the lower slopes where a brigade of working mutualistic red ants, Myrmica sabuleti, were attracted by sugary secretions of the green and yellow caterpillars of the Adonis Blue Butterfly. The ants are meant to protect the caterpillars (some were fourth instar) and pupa from predation. Ben Greenway helped me find the caterpillars, but I found one for myself by following the ants activity.
larvae are green with yellow stripes running along the length of the body.
Unlike its close relative, the Chalkhill Blue,
the larva of the Adonis Blue
feeds by day. The larva has a Newcomer's gland in the 7th segment which
provides secretions that are attractive to ants. This is a symbiotic relationship
for, like many other blues, the Adonis Blue larva (and pupa) is afforded
protection by the ants from parasites and other predators.
Early instars feed by grazing on one side of the leaf, leaving the epidermis of the other side intact. When not feeding, the larva rests at the base of the food plant, often on bare soil. Ants are known to bury the larva in a cell in the earth, where the ants continue to "milk" it for secretions. If not over wintering, this stage lasts around a month."
The primary larval food plant is Horseshoe Vetch, Hippocrepis comosa.
Adonis Blue Life Cycle (UK Butterflies)
A small Wolf Spider, Pardosa, crawled amongst the undergrowth. The upright dead bronze and silver dead Carline Thistle plants were quite noticeable on the lower slopes, as expected.
Amongst the scrub on the upper part of Mill Hill, the white blossom of Blackthorn looked attractive against the blue sky. There were a few Cowslips south of the Reservoir (the only upper part of Mill Hill visited.)
I stopped in at Mill Hill and managed to find a Grizzled Skipper, the first of the year reported in Sussex.
19 March 2019
Wind-blown Hawthorn above the Ridge
a dull afternoon I made my first cursory visit of the year (after
a week of squalls) to Mill Hill, just to the
area around the Reservoir. A hundred mixed
filled the cloudy sky. There were Sweet
Violets scattered sparsely over the undulating
area immediately south of the Reservoir. Clumps of Daffodils
were still showing. Even the small birds flying between the bare branches
were hard to discern as it was so dark. Some of the paths were muddy but
there was no standing water seen.
Mill Hill Wildlife Reports 2018 (Link)
Hill Wildlife Reports 2016 (Link)
Mill Hill Wildlife Reports 2015 (Link)
Mill Hill Wildlife Reports 2014 (Link)
Mill Hill Wildlife Reports 2013 (Link)
Mill Hill Wildlife Reports 2012 (Link)
Mill Hill Wildlife Reports 2011 (Link)
of Grasses (Link)
Mill Hill Grasses
Downs: Ecological Succession
Reserve is defined in Section 15 of
the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949,
as land managed for the purpose:
of providing, under suitable conditions and control, special opportunities
for the study of, and research into, matters relating to the flora and
fauna of Great Britain and the physical conditions in which they live,
and for the study of geological and physiographical features of special
interest in the area; or
SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES DEPENDENT ON MILL HILL
(Estimated numbers for Mill Hill Nature Reserve only are in brackets)
Blue (3000 +)
Adonis Blue (50 -100)
Dingy Skipper (75)
Wall Brown (12)
Meadow Brown (300)
|Marbled White (50)
Speckled Wood (>50)
Green-veined White (2+)
Small Blue (5)
Large Skipper (10+)
Grizzled Skipper (20)
Brown Argus (>30)
Green Hairstreak ( a few)
The other species may breed on Mill Hill, but there main breeding area will be adjoining fields or slightly further away. e.g. Small Blue (included above), Small Copper, Small Tortoiseshell, Green-veined White, Peacock, Ringlet, Small White, Large White, Comma, Holly Blue, Orange Tip. (=10). There are huge variances each year for most species.
The following are immigrants &/or hibernators: Red Admiral, Painted Lady, Clouded Yellow.
The following have not been positively identified (because of ID difficulties): Essex Skipper. This species is now included for a local field on the Adur Levels within 500 metres of Mill Hill.
following was confirmed only in 2009:
following was confirmed only in 2014: Dark
The next one is no longer
found on Mill Hill but were there in the distant (1947) past: Grayling.
The next one has been recorded near Mill Hill in the middle distance past: White-letter Hairstreak
Skipper does not appear to ever have occurred
on Mill Hill
The Silver-studded Blue has never been recorded from Mill Hill
The Short-tailed Blue was recorded as a single immigrant in 1956.
A possible (unconfirmed) Brown Hairstreak Butterfly was spotted. A confirmed one was spotted nearby.
Brown Hairstreak and Silver-spotted Skipper have been confirmed from Mill Hill. The first is notoriously difficult to spot and was probably already there. The skipper may be a new addition, but it is small and not easy to spot, and there have now been numerous sightings
History of Mill Hill
Lower Adur Levels (MultiMap) including Lancing Clump and Mill Hill
First Draft of the Article for the Shoreham Society Newsletter